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Day 1 02/10/2019
Room #1

Registration 06:30 - 07:00

Keynote 1 - Prof. Ari Pouttu (Chair: L. Mucchi) 07:00 - 07:45

While Building B5G and 6G Solutions – Shall the Vertical Businesses be Involved This Time?

Invited Speech 1 - Prof. M. Pierobon (Chair: M. Hamalainen) 07:45 - 08:20

Molecular Communication Theory for Through-body Information Transmission

Coffee break 08:20 - 08:50

Panel Session - Prof. DK Arvind, Prof. J. Iinatti, Prof. M. Pierobon, Dr. C. Paggetti, Dr. E. Paoletti (Chair: L. Mucchi) 08:50 - 10:30

Smart IoT and big data for intelligent health management

Lunch 10:30 - 12:00

Invited Speech 2 - Prof. M. Olsson & Prof. C. Melander (Chair: S. Jayousi) 12:00 - 12:35

Digital resources as a fundament in a good and dignified life: ethics applied on human needs and societal challanges

Technical Session 1 (Chair: M. Hamalainen) 12:35 - 13:35

Sensors
12:35 - 12:55
A Portable Continuous Wave Radar System to Detect Elderly Fall

Fall is the leading cause of death among elderly people worldwide. In this work a low power portable continuous wave radar (CWR) system is proposed to detect elderly fall. This paper presents experimental evaluation of the system to detect human fall motion among various sitting, standing and walking activities. Signals from three subjects with different heights and weights engaged with the different movement activities including walking, sitting, standing and fall in front of the proposed radar system are analyzed. Overall, 60 fall and 180 non-fall activities were recorded. The Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) is employed to obtain time-frequency Doppler signatures of different human activities. Radar data is analysed by using MATLAB and an algorithm is employed to classify the fall on the basis of analysed data. The results show that the proposed portable CWR can be used to detect fall from non-fall activities with almost 100 % accuracy.
Authors: Muhammad Arslan Ali (Monash University), Malikeh Ebrahim (Monash University), Mehmet Yuce (Monash University),
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12:55 - 13:15
A Piezoelectric Heart Sound Sensor for Wearable Healthcare Monitoring Devices

Heart disease is the leading cause of death all around the world. And heart sound monitoring is a commonly used diagnostic method. This method can obtain vital physiological and pathological evidence about health. Many existing techniques are not suitable for long-term dynamic heart sound monitoring since their large size, high-cost and uncomfortable to wear. This paper proposes a small, low-cost and wearable piezoelectric heart sound sensor, which is suitable for long-term dynamic monitoring and provides technical support for ambulatory monitoring and diagnosis of heart disease. First, the theoretical analysis and finite element method (FEM) simulation have been carried out to determine the optimum structure size of piezoelectric sensor. Subsequently, the sensor is embedded into the fabric-based chest strap to verify the detection performance in wearable scenarios. An existing piezoelectric sensor (TSD108) is used as reference. The designed sensor can acquire complete heart sound signals, and its signal-to-noise ratio is 2dB higher than that of TSD108.
Authors: Zhenghao Chen (Zhenghao Chen, male, was born in 1994, master degree candidate in University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, major in control science and engineering, his main research interests in smart textiles and mobile health.), Dongyi Chen (Dongyi Chen, male, was born in 1956,Ph.D degree, professor. Now serves as the doctoral supervisor and director of the Research Center for Mobile Computing of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (from 2004 up to now). He is a member of IEEE,CCF.Currently his research interests include: (1) New model / new forms of forward-looking computing technology, such as mobile and wearable computing, aware computing and natural interaction, touch / tactile computing and projecting computing. (2) Intelligent perception and human-computer interaction technology. (3) Augmented reality and virtual reality technology. (4) Wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things.), Liuhui Xue (Liuhui Xue, male, was born in 1994, master degree candidate in University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,major in control science and engineering,his main research interests in smart textiles and mobile health.),
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13:15 - 13:35
Vertical Hand Position Estimation with Differential Barometery Supported by RFID Synchronization

We demonstrate how a combination of a wrist-worn and stationary barometer can be used to track the vertical position of the user’s Hand with an accuracy in the range of 30 cm. To this end, the two barometers synchronized each time an RFID reader detects them being in proximity of each other. The accuracy is sufficient to detect a specific shelve of a cupboard on which something has been placed or determine if the user’s hand is touching his/her head or the torso. The advantage of the method over IMU based approaches is that it requires only a wrist-worn sensor (as could be implemented in a smartwatch) and a reference either in an often access location in the environment or a pocket (e.g.in the smartphone) and it does not depend on a stable magnetic environment. The proposed system was tested in two different activities: Shelve recognition in a warehouse picking scenario and movement of the arm to specific body locations. Despite the simplicity of our method, it shows initial results between 55-62% and 73-91% accuracy, respectively.
Authors: Hymalai Bello (DFKI Kaiserslautern), Jhonny Rodriguez (DFKI Kaiserslautern), Paul Lukowicz (DFKI Kaiserslautern),
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Coffee break 13:35 - 14:00

Technical Sessìon 2 (Chair: S. Morosi) 14:00 - 15:20

Systems and Medical Applications
14:00 - 14:20
The Smart Insole: A Pilot Study of Fall Detection

Falls are common events among human beings and raised a global health problem. Wearable sensors can provide quantitative assessments for fall-based movements. Automatic fall detection systems based on the wearable sensors are becoming popular in recent years. This paper proposes a new fall detection system based on the smart insole. Each smart insole contains pressure a pressure sensor array and can provide abundant pressure information during the daily activities. According to such information, the system can successfully distinguish the fall from other activities of daily livings (ADLs) using deep learning algorithms. To reduce the computational complexity through the classifiers, the raw data for each sensor in the time windows are utilized. Furthermore, the deep visualization approach is applied to provide an intuitive explanation of how the deep learning system works on distinguishing the fall events. Both quantitative and qualitative experiments are demonstrated in this paper to prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed fall detection system.
Authors: Xiaoye Qian (Case Western Reserve University), Haoyou Cheng (Case Western Reserve University), Diliang Chen (Case Western Reserve University), Quan Liu (Case Western Reserve University), Huan Chen (Case Western Reserve University), Haotian Jiang (Case Western Reserve University), Ming-Chun Huang (Case Western Reserve University),
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14:20 - 14:40
Arrhythmia detection with Antidictionary Coding and its application on mobile platforms

In response to the demand of memory efficient algorithms for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing and anomaly detection on wearable and mobile devices, an implementation of the antidictionary coding algorithm for memory constrained devices is presented. Pre-trained finite-state probabilistic models build from quantized ECG sequences were constructed in an offline fashion and their performance was evaluated on a set of test signals. The low complexity requirements of the models is confirmed with a port of a pre-trained model of the algorithm into a mobile device without incurring on excessive use of computational resources.
Authors: Gilson Frias (The University of Electro-Communications), Hiroyoshi Morita (The University of Electro-Communications), Takahiro Ota (Nagano Prefectural Institute of Technology),
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14:40 - 15:00
Characterisation of breathing and physical activity patterns in the general population using the wearable Respeck monitor

Clinical trials employing manual processes for data collection and administering of questionnaires are both time-consuming and expensive to run. Wireless body-worn sensors coupled with mobile applications can be harnessed to automate the data collection process during clinical trials. This paper describes the use of the Respeck monitor, worn as a plaster on the chest, for characterising breathing and physical activity patterns in the general population during their normal everyday lives. The Respeck was worn by 93 subjects for periods ranging between 24 - 48 hours each, amounting to a total of 106 days of continuous data. Analysis of the results showed new insights, such as the respiratory rate levels dropped by 4.39 breaths per minute on average during sleeping periods, compared to the preceding day-time periods. This change is higher than typically reported levels when normally measured directly before the subjects fall asleep, which suggests that the Respeck can be used to detect sleep onset. Previous research in activity patterns in the general population were based on high-level activities logged using questionnaires. A method is presented for clustering simple, yet high-dimensional, activity patterns based on the Respeck data, by first extracting meaningful features for each day. The results reveal four distinct groups in the cohort corresponding to different identifiable lifestyles.
Authors: DK Arvind (University of Edinburgh), DJ Fischer (University of Edimburgh), CA Bates (University of Edimburgh), S Kinra (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine),
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15:00 - 15:20
Medical tele-monitoring and tele-assistance for diabetics patients by means of 5G cellular networks

This paper deals with the description of an effective solution for tele-monitoring and tele-assistance of diabetics patients which resorts to the use of the recently launched 5G cellular networks. The proposed solution allows the provision of a tele-monitoring service for chronic diabetic patients, which provides proactive remote interaction of the patient with a "Healthcare center". Moreover the paper shows the results of a recent experimentation which is based on the use of 5G network and has been realized in the town of Prato, Italy by presenting the results in terms of main performance indicators and describing the implemented e-health routines. Since these last activities are achieved in the framework of one of the recent Italian pilot experimentations of the 5G networks, the presented e-Health services are one the first implementation that is based on this cellular system and take benefit of its outstanding performance.
Authors: Simone Morosi (Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Florence, Italy), Sara Jayousi (Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Florence, Italy), Lorenzo Mucchi (University of Florence, Dept. of Information Engineering), Federico Peinetti (ENEL X), Luca Mastrantonio (ENEL X), Gabriele Fioravanti (ENEL X), Andrea Giacomini (ENEL X), Andrea Fratini (Open Fiber), Fabio Padiglione (ADILIFE srl), Fabio De Lucia (Menarini Diagnostics),
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Gala Dinner 18:00 - 20:00

Day 2 03/10/2019
Room #1

Registration 06:30 - 07:00

Keynote 2 - Dr. S. Carrara (Chair: L. Mucchi) 07:00 - 07:45

Bio/Nano/CMOS Wearable interfaces for Remote Monitoring of Human Metabolism

Invited Speech 3 - Dr. D. Micela (Chair: J. Iinatti) 07:45 - 08:20

Blockchain for healthcare

Coffee break 08:20 - 08:50

Technical Session 3 (Chair: R. Gravina) 08:50 - 10:30

Physical Activity Monitoring
08:50 - 09:10
Group Walking Recognition based on Smartphone Sensors

Human group activity represents a potentially valuable contextually relevant source of information, which can be analyzed to support diverse human-centric applications. In recent year, more and more sensors are being pervasively spread in daily living environments, so giving excellent opportunities for using ubiquitous sensing to recognize group activities. In this paper, we used smartphone-based data and edge computing technologies to address group activity recognition, with particular focus on group walking. The data are provided by two groups of participants using a smartphone with embedded 9-DoF inertial sensors; several features are generated to identify group membership of each subject. Our results showed that the accelerometer rarely can be used alone to identify the group motion; in most situations, multiple sensor sources are required to determine group membership. Moreover, the use of 9-DoF sensors to identify group affiliation is still challenging, because, in a multi-user scenario, individual behaviors often have mutual contingency; therefore, the concept of proximity is also introduced to improve the classification algorithm.
Authors: Qimeng Li (University of Calabria), Raffaele Gravina (University of Calabria), Sen Qiu (Dalian University of Technology), Zhelong Wang (Dalian University of Technology), Weilin Zang (Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology), Ye Li (Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology),
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09:10 - 09:30
Towards Body Sensor Network Based Gait Abnormality Evaluation for Stroke Survivors

Due to the technological advances of micro-electro-mechanical sensor and wireless sensor network, gait analysis has been widely adopted as an significant indicator of mobility impairment for stroke survivors. This paper aims to propose an wearable computing based gait impairment evaluation method with distribute inertial sensor unit (IMU) mounted on human lower limbs. Temporal-spacial gait metrics were evaluated on more than twenty post stroke patients and ten healthy control subjects in the 10-meters-walk-test. Experimental results shown that significant differences exist between stroke patients and healthy subject in terms of various gait metrics. The extracted gait metrics are consistent with clinical observations, and the position estimation accuracy has been validated by optical device. The proposed method has the potential to serve as an objective and cost-efficient tool for rehabilitation-assisting therapy for post stroke survivors in clinical practice.
Authors: SEN QIU (Dalian University of Technology), Xiangyang Guo (Dalian University of Technology), Hongyu Zhao (Dalian University of Technology), Zhelong Wang (Dalian University of Technology), Qimeng Li (University of Calabria), Raffaele Gravina (University of Calabria),
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09:30 - 09:50
Motion Recognition for Smart Sports Based on Wearable Inertial Sensors

With the development of wearable technology and inertial sensor technology, the application of wearable sensors in the field of sports is becoming more extensive. The notion of Body Sensor Network (BSN) brings unique human-computer interaction mode and gives users a brand new experience. In terms of smart sports, BSN can be applied to table tennis training by detecting individual stroke motion and recognizing different technical movements, which provide a training evaluation for the players to improve their sport skills. A portable six-degree-of-freedom inertial sensor system was adopted to collect data in this research. After data pre-processing, triaxial angular velocity and triaxial acceleration data were used for table tennis stroke motion recognition. The classification and recognition of stroke action were achieved based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm after Principal Component Analysis (PCA) dimension reduction, and the recognition rate of five typical strokes can reach up to $96\%$ using the trained classification model. It can be assumed that BSN has practical significance and broad application prospects.
Authors: Huihui Wang (Dalian Neusoft University of Information), Lianfu Li (Dalian Neusoft University of Information), Hao Chen (Dalian Neusoft University of Information), Yi Li (Dalian Neusoft University of Information), Sen Qiu (Dalian University of Technology), Raffaele Gravina (University of Calabria),
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09:50 - 10:10
Pulse Wave Characteristics based on Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) During Sitting Posture

Measurement technologies of arterial parameters are mostly based on processing blood pulse wave which is an important representation of cardiac activity. The pulse wave is structured with forward and reflected waves which are affected by individual physiological parameters such as the blood intensity, the elasticity of the aorta, artery elasticity and the reflection location. The pulse wave is also an important parameter in invasive cuff-less blood pressure measurement methods. However, different physiological circumstances can lead to pulse waveforms with different characteristics including the curve factors, amplitude and time landmarks. In this study, the pulse wave signal is obtained by bio-impedance (BImp) via shoulder and photoplethysmography (PPG) from the left ear. Four age groups, as well as three (body mass index) BMI groups, are considered as physiological circumstances and the effect of them on five characteristics factors of the pulse wave, are compared. Overall, the results displayed a significant effect of the aging and BMI on the pulse wave's characteristics.
Authors: Fatemeh Heydari (Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia), Malikeh P. Ebrahim (Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia), Jean-Michel Redoute (Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia), Mehmet Yuce (Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia),
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Lunch 10:30 - 12:00

Invited Speech 4 - Prof. P. Lucattini (Chair: A. Martinelli) 12:00 - 12:35

Social Inclusion for Children with Disabilities: The Role of ICT in Play and Entertainment Activities

Technical Session 5 (Chair: A. Frappe) 12:35 - 13:35

On-Body Communications
12:35 - 12:55
Optical Wireless Data Transfer Through Biotissues: Practical Evidence and Initial Results

Light has been used in many medical applications to monitor health status and diagnose diseases. Examples include optical sensing through near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and pulse oximetry. In this article, we propose and demonstrate digital communications through biological tissues using near-infrared light. In current practices, implants predominantly use radio frequency (RF) radiation for communication. However, molecular biology restricts use of the RF in terms of power, frequency etc., while interference and security issues represent technological challenges in RF communication. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel way of employing NIR light for wireless transmission of data through biological tissues. A phantom mimicking a biological tissue is illuminated with a NIR 810 nm wavelength light-emitting diode (LED), and a light detector with line-of-sight alignment is placed on receiving end. An experimental testbed for Optical Communications through Biotissue (OCBT) was designed and implemented using mostly off-the-shelf components. Transmission rates as high as several tens of kilobits-per-second across several millimeters of tissues were achieved. Hardware limitations in modulating the baseband signal prevented achieving higher data rates. Moreover, initial performance measures as well as suggestions for potential use of this optical communication system are also presented and discussed.
Authors: iqrar ahmed (University of Oulu), alexander bykov (University of Oulu), alexey popov (University of Oulu), igor meglinski (University of Oulu), Marcos Katz (University of Oulu),
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12:55 - 13:15
Estimation of Skin Conductance Response through Adaptive filtering

The importance of medical wearable sensors is increasing in aiding both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, in a wide area of health applications. Among them, the acquisition and analysis of electrodermal activity (EDA) may help in detecting seizures and different human emotional states. Nonnegative deconvolution represents an important step needed for decomposing the measured galvanic skin response (GSR) in its tonic and phasic components. In particular, the phasic component, also known as skin conductance response (SCR), is related to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, since it can be modeled as the linear convolution between the SCR driver events, modeled by sparse impulse signals, with an impulse response representing the sudomotor SNS innervation. In this paper, we propose a novel method for implementing this deconvolution by an adaptive filter, determined by solving a linear prediction problem, which results independent on the impulse response parameters, usually represented by sampling the biexponential Bateman function. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated by using both synthetic and experimental data.
Authors: Pietro Savazzi (University of Pavia), Floriana Vasile (University of Pavia), Natascia Brondino (University of Pavia), Marco Vercesi (University of Pavia), Pierluigi Politi (University of Pavia),
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13:15 - 13:35
Capacitive Body-Coupled Communication in the 400 - 500 MHz Frequency Band

One approach to enable wireless communication between body-worn nodes is to use capacitive body-coupled communication (C-BCC). This technique, which uses capacitive electrodes as transducing elements, has previously been demonstrated at relatively low frequencies (<200 MHz) and hence also low bandwidths. This work presents a theoretical analysis of wireless C-BCC, between body worn electrodes at higher frequencies (420 - 510 MHz), offering the potential for higher data rates. The theory is confirmed both by numerical simulations (performed on a human body phantom), and actual wireless communication between two prototypes on the arm of a real human.
Authors: Robin Benarrouch (STMicroelectronics), Arno Thielens (Ghent University), Andreia Cathelin (STMicroelectronics), Antoine Frappe (University of Lille), Andreas Kaiser (University of Lille), Jan Rabaey (UC Berkeley),
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Coffee break 13:35 - 14:00

Technical Session 7 (Chair: M. Olsson) 14:00 - 15:00

ICT Solutions for Diagnosis and Social Inclusion
14:00 - 14:20
Digital resources aiding opportunities for affiliation and practical reasoning among people with dementia: A scoping review

Persons with dementia face several challenges in daily life and the consequences of the disease can be a threat to live a dignified life. Martha Nussbaum has developed the concept of dignified life for people with dementia and suggests the capability approach focusing on what people are able to do and to be in certain agreed-upon areas. Particularly, affiliation and practical reasoning are crucial to preserve a dignified life. For people with dementia the conse-quences of the disease may affect their opportunities to achieve these vital human capabilities. Digital resources have been shown to have potential to support people in their everyday life and provide them with the means necessary to participate in all aspects of life. Our purpose is to describe digital resources aimed at supporting opportunities for affiliation and practical reasoning among people with dementia. Specifically, an overview of the existing digital resources used to support affiliation and practical reasoning and how such resources affect opportunities for people with dementia is given. A framework for scoping reviews was used and literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Scopus. The results highlight the need for a clearer direction towards the very core of vital aspects in a dignified life. Hence, there is a need for a framework that can guide attention towards crucial aspects for supporting a dignified life when developing and evaluating digital resources.
Authors: Catharina Melander (Department of Health science, Luleå University of Technology, Lulea 97187, Sweden), Malin Olsson (Department of Health science, Luleå University of Technology, Lulea 97187, Sweden), Sara Jayousi (Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Florence, Italy), Alessio Martinelli (Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Florence, Italy), Lorenzo Mucchi (University of Florence),
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14:20 - 14:40
Using Distributed Wearable Inertial Sensors to Measure and Evaluate the Motions of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Hippotherapy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive neuro- developmental conditions occurring in early childhood that causes move- ment disorders and physical disability. Measuring activity levels and gait patterns is an important aspect of rehabilitation programs for CP. Equestrian therapy is a rehabilitation method to improve motor coor- dination ability of children with CP. However, there is still no practical evidence for the effectiveness of equestrian therapy. This paper intro- duces a method of motor measurement and evaluation for children with CP based on body area sensor network. Our method uses wearable in- ertial sensors to measure the motor function of children with CP by sensor fusion algorithm, whose accuracy is verified by optical system. In addition, via introducing the control group, the differences of motor co- ordination ability and gait parameters between CP and healthy children were discussed. Generally speaking, our method can effectively measure the movement posture and gait parameters of children with CP during equestrian therapy, which provides a basis for proving the effectiveness of equestrian therapy.
Authors: Sen Qiu (Dalian University of Technology), Jie Li (Dalian University of Technology), Zhelong Wang (Dalian University of Technology), Hongyu Zhao (Dalian University of Technology), Bing Liang (Suzhou Industrial Park Boai School & Clinic), Jiaxin Wang (Dalian University of Technolog), Ning Yang (Dalian University of Technolog), Xin Shi (Dalian University of Technolog), Ruichen Liu (Dalian University of Technolog), Jinxiao Li (Dalian University of Technolog), Xiaoyang Li (Dalian Qiyu Ipony Equestrian Club Co. Ltd),
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14:40 - 15:00
The Relationship Between Diagnosed Burnout and Sleep Measured by Activity Trackers: Four Longitudinal Case Studies

Employee burnout is an increasing global problem. Some countries, such as The Netherlands, diagnose and treat burnout as a medical condition. While deficient sleep has been implicated as the primary risk factor for burnout, the longest current sleep measurement of burnout individuals is 4 weeks; and no studies have measured sleep throughout the burnout process (i.e.: pre-burnout, burnout diagnosis, recovery time, and returning to work). During a 7 month longitudinal study on wearable technology use, 4 participants were diagnosed with (pre)burnout by their company doctor using the Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI). Our study captured the participants’ sleep data including: sleep quality, number of awakenings, sleep duration, time awake, and amount of light sleep during the burnout and recovery process. One participant experienced a burnout diagnosis, recovery at home, and returning to work within the 7 months providing the first look at sleep trends during the entire burnout process. Our results show that the burnout participants experienced decreased sleep quality (n=2), sleep duration (n=2), and light sleep (n=3). In contrast, a sample of 3 non-burnout participants sleep remained stable on all measures except for time awake for one participant. The results of this study answer past calls for longer analysis of sleep’s influence on burnout and highlight the vast opportunity to extend burnout research using the millions of active devices currently in use.
Authors: Elizabeth Nelson (University of Twente), Rosanne de Keijzer (University of Twente), Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten (University of Twente, Ziekenhuis Groep Twente), Tibert Verhagen (Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences), Matthijs Noordzij (University of Twente),
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Room #2

Technical Session 4 (Chair: A. Vizziello) 08:50 - 10:30

In-Body Communications
08:50 - 09:10
Sensitivity of Galvanic Intra-Body Communication Channel to System Parameters

In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the galvanic coupling Intra-Body Communication (IBC) channel to the variation of the basic parameters - being them electrical, geometrical or biological - of the main blocks of the IBC system; the transmitter and receiver nodes, the electrodes used, and the communication channel itself being the human body in this case. The study is performed over the frequency range 100 KHz – 100 MHz, providing the system designer with a unique guide for the relationship between the system parameters, thus facilitating the design of an efficient and better matched system components.
Authors: Ahmed Khorshid (University of California, Irvine), Ibrahim Alquaydheb (University of California, Irvine), Ahmed Eltawil (University of California, Irvine), Fadi Kurdahi (University of California, Irvine),
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09:10 - 09:30
Magnetic Steering of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles in Duct Flow for Molecular Communication: A Feasibility Study

Molecular communication (MC) denotes information transmission by use of molecules and nanosized particles. For the realization of testbeds, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in duct flow have recently been proposed. Here, an experimental setup is provided to direct these particles at a branching of a tube into a specific direction by use of magnetic fields. For that purpose, gold-coated SPIONs suspended in water at constant flow rate are considered at a Y-shaped connector of tubes. The particles are attracted by use of a custom-made electromagnet, while change of particle concentration in either of the branches is measured by a commercial susceptometer. The approach is evaluated for different flow rates and with the electromagnet both at a fixed position and moving along the tube. Exemplary measurements show that an information transmission is feasible in both approaches and with all tested flow rates. The feasibility study hence shows that particle steering by use of magnetic fields is a viable approach, which is even robust against flow rate variations. It can thus be used in MC to address different transmission channels as well as to realize differential signal transmission. Furthermore, it might help to improve magnetic drug targeting in future applications.
Authors: Niklas Schlechtweg (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Sebastian Meyer (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Harald Unterweger (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Max Bartunik (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Doaa Ahmed (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Wayan Wicke (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Vahid Kooshkghazi (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Christoph Alexiou (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Georg Fischer (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Robert Weigel (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Robert Schober (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany), Jens Kirchner (Institute for Electronics Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universit¨at Erlangen-N¨urnberg (FAU), Germany),
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09:30 - 09:50
Fat in the Abdomen Area as a Propagation Medium in WBAN Applications

This paper presents a study on the fat in the abdomen area as a propagation medium in wearable and implant communications systems. Propagation via subcutaneous and visceral fat are considered separately. Study is conducted via finite integration technique based simulation results with anatomical voxel models evaluating the channel characteristics between two on-body antennas designed for in-body communications. Besides, we analyze 2D power flow figures, which illustrate the propagation inside the different tissues. Fur-thermore, propagation paths are evaluated and compared with the simulated and measured impulse responses. It is shown that the signal propagates through the fat layer with minor losses compared to the other tissues of the studied cases. The signal propagates through the fat tissue from the abdomen area to the backside of person with only 60 dB power loss. Additionally, the calculated fat layer propagation paths match well with the peaks of the simulated and measured impulse responses. The information about the fat as propagation medium is useful when designing the wireless and wired medical and health monitoring devices.
Authors: Mariella Särestöniemi (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Carlos Raez (Department of Electrical and Computational Engineering, Purdue University of Technology), Chaimaa Kissi (Electronics and Telecommunication Systems Research Group, National School of Applied Sciences (ENSA), Ibn Tofail University), Timo Kumpuniemi (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Marko Sonkki (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Matti Hämäläinen (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Jari Iinatti (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu),
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09:50 - 10:10
A novel galvanic coupling testbed based on PC sound card for intra-body communication links

Intra-Body Communication (IBC) is an emerging research area that will transfor the personalized medicine by allowing real time and in situ monitoring in daily life. A galvanic coupling (GC) technology is used in this work to send data through weak currents for the intra-body links, as an energy efficient alternative to the current radio frequency (RF) solutions. A sound card based GC testbed is here designed and implemented, whose main features are: (i) low equipment requirements since it only employes two ordinary PCs and Matlab software, (ii) high flexibility because all the parameters setting may be modified through Matlab programs, and (iii) real time physiological data sets transmissions. Experimental evaluation with a real cicken tissue are conducted in terms of bit error rate (BER) proving the feasibility of the proposed solution. The developed GC testbed may be easily replicated by the interested research community to carry out simulation-based experiments, thus fostering new research in this field.
Authors: Anna Vizziello (University of Pavia), Pietro Savazzi (University of Pavia), Farzana Kulsoom (University of Pavia), Giovanni Magenes (University of Pavia), Paolo Gamba (University of Pavia),
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Lunch 10:30 - 12:00

Technical Session 6 (Chair: S. Soderi) 12:35 - 13:35

Security, Privacy and Performance Evaluation
12:35 - 12:55
SmartBAN Performance Evaluation for Diverse Applications

WBANs envision the realization of several applications which involve the physiological monitoring and/or feedback generations according to the monitored vital signs. These applications range from telehealth or telemedicine to sports and entertainment. SmartBAN provides the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layer specifications for a simplified and efficient execution of these applications. This paper provides an overview of the existing WBAN use-cases and categorizes them according to their data rate requirements. The SmartBAN performance is thoroughly investigated for the implementation of these diverse applications. For performance evaluation, packet reception rate (PRR), aggregated throughput and latency are taken as the primary quality of service (QoS) criteria. We assume two different channel models, namely static CM3B and realistic CM3B, and different options for the slot durations to further comprehend the results. The simulation results indicate that smaller slot duration performs better in terms of PRR and latency while longer slot durations are more effective to support high data rate application throughput requirements.
Authors: Rida Khan (Tallinn University of Technology), Muhammad Alam (Tallinn University of Technology),
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12:55 - 13:15
Cybersecurity Assessment of the Polar Bluetooth Low Energy Heart-rate Sensor

Wireless communications among wearable and implantable devices implement the information exchange around the human body. Wireless body area network (WBAN) technology enables non-invasive applications in our daily lives. Wireless connected devices improve the quality of many services, and they make procedures easier. On the other hand, they open up large attack surfaces and introduces potential secu- rity vulnerabilities. Bluetooth low energy (BLE) is a low-power protocol widely used in wireless personal area networks (WPANs). This paper an- alyzes the security vulnerabilities of a BLE heart-rate sensor. By observ- ing the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) variations, it is possible to detect anomalies in the BLE connection. The case-study shows that an attacker can easily intercept and manipulate the data transmitted be- tween the mobile app and the BLE device. With this research, the author would raise awareness about the security of the heart-rate information that we can receive from our wireless body sensors.
Authors: Simone Soderi (Independent Cybersecurity Researcher - SMIEEE),
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13:15 - 13:35
User’s Authentication using Information Collected by Smart-shoes

In the last years, smart-shoes moved from the medical domain, where they are used to collect gait-related data during rehabilitation or in case of pathologies, to the every-day life of an increasing number of people. In this paper, a method useful to effortlessly authenticate the user during gait periods is proposed. The method relies on the information collected by shoe-mounted accelerometers and gyroscopes, and on the distance between feet collected by Ultra-WideBand (UWB) transceivers. Experimental results show that a balanced accuracy equal to 97% can be achieved even when information about the possible impostors is not known in advance. The contribution of the different information sources, accelerometer, gyroscope, and UWB, is also evaluated.
Authors: Luca Brombin (University of Pisa), Margherita Gambini (University of Pisa), Pietro Gronchi (University of Pisa), Roberto Magherini (University of Pisa), Lorenzo Nannini (University of Pisa), Amedeo Pochiero (University of Pisa), Alessandro Sieni (University of Pisa), Alessio Vecchio (University of Pisa),
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Coffee break 13:35 - 14:00

Technical Session 8 (Chair: M. Katz) 14:00 - 15:40

Propagation
14:00 - 14:20
Channel Gain for a Wrist-to-Arm Scenario in the 55-65 GHz Frequency Band

Wireless communication on the body is expected to become more important in the future. This communication will in certain scenarios benefit from higher frequencies of operation and their associated smaller antennas and potentially higher bandwidths. One of these scenarios is communication between a wristband and wearable sensors on the arm. In order to investigate the feasibility of such a scenario, propagation at 55 - 65 GHz along the arm is measured for two configurations. First, for increasing separation distances along the arm, and second for a transmitter is rotationally placed around the wrist. Two channel gain models are fitted to the data and used to obtain a channel gain exponent in the first configuration and loss per angle of rotation in the second configuration. These models are relevant inputs for the design of future wearable wireless systems.
Authors: Arno Thielens (Ghent University-imec), Reza Aminzadeh (Ghent University-imec), Luc Martens (Ghent University-imec), Wout Joseph (Ghent University-imec), Jan Rabaey (University of California Berkeley),
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14:20 - 14:40
WBAN Radio Channel Characteristics between the Endoscope Capsule and On-body Antenna

This paper presents a study on the radio channel characteristics between an endoscope capsule and an on-body antenna in different parts of the small intestine with different on-body antenna location options. The study is conducted using finite integration technique based electromagnetic simulation software CST and one of its anatomical voxels. An endoscope capsule with a dipole antenna is set inside different areas of the small intestine of the voxel model. A recently published highly-directive on-body antenna designed for on-in-body communications is used in the evaluations. Different rotation angles of the capsule are also considered both with a layer model and a voxel model. It is found that radio channel characteristics vary remarkably depending on the antenna location in the small intestine and location of the on-body antenna. Thus, the on-body antennas should be located carefully to ensure coverage over the whole intestine area. However, the path loss does not only depend on the distance between a capsule and the on-body antenna but also on the tissues between the capsule and on-body antennas. Furthermore, orientation of the capsule has also strong impact when linearly polarized antennas are used.
Authors: Mariella Särestöniemi (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Carlos Pomalaza-Raez (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University), Markus Berg (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Chaimaa Kissi (Electronics and Telecommunication Systems Research Group, National School of Applied Sciences (ENSA), Ibn Tofail University), Matti Hämäläinen (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu), Jari Iinatti (Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu),
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14:40 - 15:00
Analysis of Channel Characteristic for Body Channel Communication Transceiver Design

In this paper, body channel communication and its channel characteristic are in-vestigated through measurement. Previously, the body channel communication has limitation in channel bandwidth due to its fluctuation. To verify orientation, 4 independent systemic factors are under test; 1) the size of the signal electrode at-taching on the skin, 2) the size of the ground plane (GND) electrode that is not at-taching on the skin, 3) the channel distance between TX and RX through human body, and 4) the length of cable connecting between the transceiver hardware and signal electrode. The size of the electrode and channel communication does not have a high correlation, However, the cable length between electrode and device shows a large variation. The newly proposed results are useful for hardware de-sign and allow larger utilizable channel bandwidth that is promising for future BCC hardware design.
Authors: Jaeeun Jang, Hoi-Jun Yoo (KAIST),
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15:00 - 15:20
MAC protocol with interference mitigation using negotiation among coordinators in multiple wireless body area networks

In this paper,we propose a new MAC protocol in presence of multiple wireless Body Area Network(BAN)s which can for reduce inter-WBAN interference and improve overall performance of all BANs. A BAN system consists of a coordinator and some sensor nodes. When coverages of multiple BANs are overlapped, some packets transmitted form sensor nodes of different BANs cause interference. Although an international standard for wireless medical BAN, i.e. IEEE802.15.6 can reduce intra-WBAN interference within a single BAN, inter-WBAN interference caused by coexistence of multiple BANs can not reduce effectively. Therefore, this paper proposes such a new MAC protocols method that coordinators of overlapped BANs can negotiate among coordinators of BANs. In addition, to enable priority control which is a feature of the standard, we propose a method that changes parameters of the proposed method according to priority of packets. Throughput and delay time of the proposed scheme are illustrated by simulation, in which it is convinced that the proposed scheme can improve overall performance such as throughput and delay considering efficiency of priority control.
Authors: Shunya Ogawa (Graduate School of Engineering Science,Yokohama National University), Takahiro Goto (Graduate School of Engineering Science,Yokohama National University), Takumi Kobayashi (Graduate School of Engineering Science,Yokohama National University), Chika Sugimoto (Graduate School of Engineering Science,Yokohama National University), Ryuji Kohno (Graduate School of Engineering Science,Yokohama National University),
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15:20 - 15:40
Pseudo-Dynamic UWB WBAN Off-Body Radio Channel Measurements – Preliminary Results

This paper presents measurement results on pseudo-dynamic ultra wideband off-body wireless body area network radio channels. The measurements are performed in an anechoic chamber in a 2-8 GHz frequency band by utilizing a vector network analyzer. A dynamic walking sequence was modeled by a test person who took five different body postures which were each measured statically. As a result, when observed together, the five postures can be used to model a dynamic walking sequence as in a cinema film. The focus is to observe the human body shadowing effect. The antennas were attached on left and right wrist, and left ankle. The off-body antenna node was set on a pole. The work was repeated for two prototype antenna types: dipole and double loop. The mean attenuations of the first arriving paths were noted to lie between −52…−68 dB. No large differences were noted between the body postures. The link between left ankle and the pole had the largest attenuation. The averaged channel impulse response durations were noted to lie between eight to nine taps, with a tap separation of 0.167 ns in time. The dynamic range on the averaged link types shows values between 17…28 dB. No clear difference was noted in the performance between the antenna types.
Authors: Timo Kumpuniemi (University of Oulu), Juha-Pekka Mäkelä (University of Oulu), Matti Hämäläinen (University of Oulu), Jari Iinatti (University of Oulu),
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